The Narration of Tawoos – Proof of Placing The Hands On Chest


Tawoos narrated: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) used to place his right hand upon his left hand and plant them firmly upon his chest while in prayer. [Abu Dawood ma’ al-Minhal a-azab al-mawrood: Vol 5 Pg 166]

Introduction to its Isnaad (Chain)

Imam Abu Dawood narrates this hadeeth from his teacher Abu Tawbah. Imam Abu Dawood has first narrated his narration in Kitaab at-Taharah, where he mentions his full name as: “Abu Tawbah bin ar-Rabee’ bin Naafi”, and he narrates it from “Haytham bin Al-Humayd”, From “Thawr”, From “Sulemaan bin Moosa”, From Tawoos [rahimahullah]….Abu Tawbah Rabee’ bin Naafi’:


Imam Abu Haatim said: “He is Siqah, Sudooq, Hujjah…… Al-Athram said, I heard Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal mentioned Abu Tawbah and praised him, and said: I do not think anything about him except good.” [Al-Jarah wal Ta’deel: Vol 3 Pg 470]

Haafidh Ibn Hajar has authenticated him in Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb [Vl 3 Pg 218]

Imam Ibn Hibbaan has mentioned in Kitaab ath-Thiqaat.

He is the narrator of Saheeh Bukhaari and Saheeh Muslim, and is Siqah with agreement.

Al-Haytham bin Al-Humayd:

Haafidh Ibn Hajar said: “He is turthful, and accused of Qadar.” [Taqreeb at-Tahdheeb: 7362]

The Jumhoor of Muhadditheen have authenticated him, therefore he is Hasan ul-Hadeeth.

1. Imam Daheem = “A’lam ul-Awwaleen wal Akhirieen bi-Makhool” [Al-Ma’rifat wal Taareekh 2/395, Chain Saheeh]

2. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal = “I only know good about him.” [Al-Jarah wal Ta’deel: 9/82, Chain Saheeh]

3. Yahya ibn Ma’een = “There is nothing wrong in him.” [Al-Jarah wal Ta’deel: 9/82, Chain Saheeh]

4. Daraqutni = Siqah. [Sunan Daraqutni: 1/319 H. 204]

5. Ibn Shaaheen = He mentioned him in Kitaab ath-Thiqaat (1549)

6. Ibn Hibbaan = He mentioned him in Kitaab ath-Thiqaat (9/235)

7. Abu Zur’ah ad-Dimashqi = Authenticated and praised him [Tareekh Abu Zur’ah: 902]

8. Adh-Dhahabi = “Al-Faqeeh al-Haafidh” [Tadhkiratul Huffaadh: 1/285]. In Mizaan ul-I’tidaal (4/321), Haafidh Dhahabi authenticated him. In Ma’rifat ur-Rawaat al-Mutakallim fihim bima yojab ar-Radd, he said: “He is Truthful” [Pg 187]

9. Imam Baihaqi after narrating his hadeeth, said =  “Its Chain is Saheeh, and its narrators are Siqaat” [Kitaab al-Qiraat by Al-Baihaqi Pg 64]

10. Ibn Hajar = Sudooq, accused of Qadar. [Taqreeb at-Tahdheeb: 7362]

On the contrary to these praises, only the saying of Abu Mashar is narrated, who said: “He is Da’eef and Qadari”. This saying is Da’eef due to being against the Jumhoor.

Conclusion:

Haytham bin Humayd is Thiqah and Sudooq.

Thawr bin Yazeed bin Ziyaad al-Kalaa’ee Abu Khaalid Al-Hamsi

Imam Yahya ibn Ma’een said: I have not seen any Shaami more reliable than him, Ibn Sa’d said that he is Thiqah in Hadeeth, Ibn Adee said that when he narrates from Thiqah and sudooq narrator then accoding to my research there is nothing wrong in his narration, Imam Nasaa’ee and Imam Duhaym said that he is Thiqah, Imam Abu Haatim said that he is Sudooq and Hafidh, Imam Ibn Hibbaan has mentioned him in Kitaab ath-Thiqaat, Molvi Khaleel ur-Rahmaan Saharanpoori Hanafi said that He is Thiqah Thabat, meaning Thiqah of the highest level. [Bazal al-Majhood: Vol 1 Pg 83]

Muhammad bin Ishaaq, Ahmed bin Saalih, Muhammad bin Awf, Abu Dawood, and Al-Ijlee have also said that he is Thiqah.

Haafidh Dhahabi has narrated that he recanted from his belief of Qadar, therefore the accusation of being a Qadari on him is not valid.

And he is a narrator of Saheeh Bukhaari.

Conclusion: 

Thawr is Siqah and Saheeh ul-Hadeeth

Sulemaan bin Moosa al-Umwi Ad-Dimashqi Al-Ashdaq:
Praise (Ta’deel) narrated about him:

1. Saeed bin Abdul Azeez = He is the most knowledgeable from Shaam after Makhool

2. Duhaym = The reliable companion of Makhool [Al-Jarah wal Ta’deel: 4/41, Chain Saheeh]

3. Ibn Ma’een = Thiqah [Taareekh Uthmaan bin Sa’eed ad-Daarimi: 26, 360]

4. Ibn Adee = And he is Thabat Sudooq according to me. [Al-Kaamil: 3/1119]

5. Ad-Daraqutni = He is from the Thiqaat Huffaadh [Kitaab al-Illal: Vol 5 Pg 110, Mosoo’ah Aqwaal ad-Daraqutni: 1/303]

6. ‘Ataa bin Abi Ribaah = He Praised him [Kitaab al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh: 2/405, Chain Saheeh]

7. Hishaam bin Ammaar = “Arfa’ Ashaab Makhool Sulemaan bin Moosa. [Kitaab al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh: 2/396, Chain Saheeh]

8. Ibn Sa’d = He is Thiqah, Ibn Jurayj praised him [Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’d: 7/457]

9. Az-Zuhri = He Praised him [Musnad Ahmed: 6/47 H. 24205, Chain Saheeh]

10. Ibn Hibbaan = He mentioned him in Kitaab ath-Thiqaat, and said: “He is Faqeeh and righteous”. [Kitaab ath-Thiqaat: 6/379, 380]

11. Ibn al-Madeeni = He is from the Major comapnions of Makhool, he got slightly confused before his death. [This saying was not found with an authentic chain]

12. Adh-Dhahabi = “Al-Imam, Al-Kabeer, Mufti..” [Siyar A’laam al-Nabula: 5/433]

13. Ibn Hajar = In Fath ul Baari (10/8), he said, all the narrators of the hadeeth narrated by Suelmaan are trustworthy. Haafidh Ibn Hajar has also said he was truthful in Taqreeb at-Tahdheeb, and he became a little forgetful before his death.

14. Al-Haakim = He authenticated him [Al-Mustadrak: 2/168 H. 2706]

Those who Criticize him:

1. Al-Bukhaari = He has Munkar narrations [Ad-Du’afa by Al-Bukhaari: 148], And he said: “He is Munkir ul-Hadeeth, I do not narrate anything from him.”

This criticism of Imam Bukhaari concerning Suelmaan is after he started to forget in later age and so cannot be taken in the general sense, it is limited and specific to Sulemaan in his later life. (refer to ‘Tuhfatul Aqwiyaa fee Tahqeeq Kitaab ad-Du’afaa (no. 148 pg. 37), Manuscript Form, of Shaikh Zubair Alee Za’ee.

2. Abu Haatim = “He is truthful, and in some of his hadeeth there is Idtiraab and I do not know anyone more firm and more of a Jurist (Faqeeh) narrator than him from amongst the companions of Makhool.” (al-Jarah wal Ta’deel of Ibn Abi Haatim Tarjamah Sulemaan, Tahdheeb ut-Tahdheeb (4/237) and ‘Aun al-Ma’bood (2/325)

So Imam Abu Haatim said he was firm, which are words of high praise. He also said some of his hadeeth have idtiraab, then there being some idtiraab in his hadeeth is not heavy criticism as the details of this are mentioned in the books of science of hadeeth

3. An-Nasaa’ee = He was a Jurist and not strong in Hadeeth [Ad-Du’afa: 252]

4. Abu Zur’ah ar-Raazi = He mentioned him in Ad-Du’afaa

5. Al-Ukaylee = He mentioned him in Ad-Du’afaa

From this detail, we come to know that Sulemaan is Siqah and Sudooq according to the Jumhoor, so therefore there is no weakness in it because of Sulemaan bin Moosa. [It should also be noted that he is the narrator of Saheeh Muslim]

“Got slightly confused before his death” is not even proven, and is not hramful here either, wallahu a’lam.

Imam Abu Dawood has kept silent on this hadeeth, therefore according to the principle of Thanvi Deobandi, this hadeeth is Authentic.

Numerous scholars of Jarah wat Ta’deel have not only made general criticisms on Abu Haneefah but also detailed criticisms. The Hanafees anwer this criticism and say Abu Haneefah was a great Jurist of his time and therefore the criticisms on him are not sustainable. However, no one has criticized Sulemaan in detail and ash-Sharazee said in ‘Tabqaat ul-Fuqaha’, “Sulemaan was the Jurist of Shaam and a Companion of Makhool”, therefore how can general criticism on him be sustainable.

Tawoos:

Imam Tawoos is the narrator of Saheeh Bukhaari, Saheeh Muslim and Sunan Arba’ah. He is the student of Ibn Abbaas and others

Abdullah bin Abbaas [radiallah anhu] said: “I am sure that Tawoos is among the people of Jannah.” [Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb: Vol 4 Pg 9]

Imam Zuhri said: “If you see Tawoos, you will praise his sincerity” [Tahdheb at-Tahdheeb: Vol 4 Pg 9]

Objection on this narration

This is a Mursal narration.

Answer to this Objection:

Certainly this hadeeth is Mursal. However, Mursal hadeeth is Hujjat according to Ahnaaf without any condition.

The Imaam of the Hanafee Madhhab, Imaam Sarkhasee writes, “Those mursal narrations which are of the 2nd and 3rd generations, according to our Hanafee Ulamaa are accepted as proof and evidence.” (Stated in Kitaab al-Usool (1/360), likewise Noor al-Anwaar (p.150) also mentions the same).

Further Muhammad Hashim Tahtawee Hanafee in his treatise, Kashfud-Deen p. 17, states that, “The mursal narration is acceptable to us Ahnaaf as a proof.” Allaamah ibn Humaam Hanafee in Fathul-Qadeer, the explantion of Hidaayah (1/239) states the same.

Zafar Ahmed Uthmaani said: “And Mursal is Hujjat according to us.” [A’laa us-Sunan: Vol 1 Pg 82

Whereas, according to Shaafi’ees and Ahle-Hadeeth, a Mursal hadeeth is not hujja until it is not supported by a Marfoo and Musnad hadeeth.

Allamah Mahmood as-Subki, while eplaining this hadeeth, writes:

“According to some Imams, the Mursal hadeeth is Hujjah without any condition. Whereas according to Imam Shafi’ee, a Mursal hadeeth will only be hujjah when it is supported by another hadeeth. Certainly, there are narrations present which strengthen this narration. One narration is narrated from Hulb at-Taa’ee in Musnad Ahmed, whereas the other is from Waail ibn Hujr, narrated by Imam Ibn Khuzaymah in his Saheeh.” [Al-Minhal al-Azab al-Mawrood: Vol 5 Pg 166]

Imaam Abdur Rahmaan Mubaarakpooree said: “And the Hadeeth of Tawoos is Mursal, because Tawoos is a Tabi’ee and its Isnaad is Hasan. And the Mursal hadeeth is considered a proof with Abu Haneefah, Maalik, and Ahmed in general. And according to Shaafi’ee it is a proof when supported by something that occurs via another route that builds upon the first route be it Musnad or Mursal. And this Mursal hadeeth is supported by the aformentioned hadeeth of Waa’il ibn Hujr and Hulb at-Taa’ee. So deriving evidence from these to place the hands on the chest in prayer is correct….” [Tuhfatul Ahwadhee 2/81]

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