Sayings of the Scholars of Islaam condemning the Soofi Raqs/Dancing


sufi

 

Raqs in Islaam

Al-Ghinaa or As-Samaa refers to songs and music.

Al-Raqs or Al-Hadrah refers to dancing.

The Scholars of Islaam have unanimously agreed upon that singing and musical instruments are Haraam in Islaam, and if along with that, it also involves dancing then it is even worse which no person in his right senses would ever attribute to the respected Prophet and His Sahaabah as their practice.

But there are some species of Humans discovered in the world, which jump like chimpanzees while dancing, and sing like aliens with strange Hoo Hoo sounds, and they have the audacity to attribute their Break-Dance or Mujrah to the Prophet and His Sahaabah, na’oozubillah, considering it permissible in Islaam to do that.

Now singing and music was already prohibited by the Ijmaa of Muslim Ummah and some explicit reports of the Prophet and His Sahaabah, but when it involved DANCING on that music, it became worse and a bigger Haraam. But giving that dancing and music an aspect of Ibaadah, saying that these evil things are a cause to draw near to Allaah and is a righteous act, was just where these break-dancers and chimpanzees crossed all the limits.

Can any person with a little mind in his brain ever think of his old bearded father, his respected elders and righteous personalities getting up and dancing in front of him like a wild buffalo! Is this not against good character!? Is this not resembling the women? Is this not against the practice of our righteous Salaf? Is this not against the teachings of Qur’aan and Sunnah? And as a matter of the fact, is this not clearly resembling the Kuffaar (as explained below under the heading: Origin of the Soofi Raqs)?

In this short article, I have tried to compile a few fatwas from the leading Scholars of the Ummah from all the well known schools of thoughts. I am saying “few fatwas” because it is well known and established (as will be explained below) that there is the Ijmaa of Ummah on the prohibition of Dancing as well. And Ijmaa is one of the four shara’ee proofs, which does not take place until all the Scholars of one era unanimously agree on an issue. If even a single Scholar of that era differed in that issue, the Ijmaa has not occurred. So if there is an Ijmaa on the prohibition of Raqs, imagine how many Ulama and Muhadditheen are you dealing against on this issue!? And that is why the references of the Ulama mentioned in this article are only a “few” compared to that innumerably large number which encompasses the Ijmaa, and it really makes these references a drop in the ocean.

And it is not permissible for anyone to oppose the Ijmaa because it is one of the Shara’ee sources. And the sayings of those few Ulama, if any, that came before or after this Ijmaa which Soofis present in order to defend raqs, are not as well, going to harm this Ijmaa in any way. Because once the Ijmaa has occurred, the sayings of anyone before or after that Ijmaa aren’t going to help them or, in any way, affect the Ijmaa!

Also note that although the sayings of Ulama in prohibition of Al-Ghinaa (songs and music) can also be presented under this heading (Raqs) because the one who prohibits singing and music would obviously not allow dancing which is even worse, but still I have mainly focused only on those sayings which specifically mention Raqs in order to satisfy the needs of some stubborn Soofis.

Note: These references are in no particular order.

1) The Origin of the Soofi Raqs (Dance)

The first people to introduce the Bid’ah of remembering Allaah the Most High by Dancing, Singing, Showing off, and Hopping were the Yahood (Jews) and the worshippers of Stars.

As it is written in the book of Psalms (in Bible),

ليبتهج بنو صهيون بملكهم ليسبّحوا اسمه برقص، بدفّ، وعود، ليرنّموا … هلّلوا يا، سبّحوا الله في قدسه، سبحوه بصوت الصور، سبّحوه برباب وعود وسبحوه بدفّ ورقص، سبحوه بأوتار ومزمار، سبحوه بصنوج الهتاف

“Let the children of Zion be joyful in their King. Let them praise his name with dance: let them sing praises unto him with the timbrel (Daff) and harp….. Praise ye the Lord. Praise God in his sanctuary… Praise him with the sound of the trumpet: praise him with the psaltery and harp. Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and organs. Praise him upon the high sounding cymbals”

[The Holy Bible: Book of Psalms: Chapter 149 V. 2, 3 & Chapter 150 V. 1, 3, 4, 5: King James Version]

And this type of worship was also famous among the worshippers of the stars who used to take things with specific shapes as their dieties and they would prostrate to it, sing for it, and dance around it.

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim said:

“And another group took the moon as a diety and claimed that it deserves to be revered and worshipped, and to it is the management of this lower world”

He further said:

ومن شريعة عباده: أنهم اتخذوا له صنما على شكل عجل يجره أربعة، ويبد الصنم جوهرة، ويعبدونه، ويسجدون له ويصومون له أياما معلومة من كل شهر، ثم يأتون إليه بالطعام والشراب، والفرح والسرور، فإذا فرغوا من الأكل أخذوا فى الرقص والغناء وأصوات المعازف بين يديه.

“And from the Sharee’ah of its worshippers was that they would take for it an idol….. and they would worship it, prostrate to it, and fast for it a set number of days each month, then they would bring to it food, drink, feast and pleasure. And when they are done with eating, they would begin dancing, singing, and making sounds from musical instruments in front of it.”

[Ighaathah al-Lahfaan Min Masaa’id ash-Shaytaan (2/224)]

Imaam Abu Bakr at-Tartoosi said when he was asked about the raqs of soofis:

وأما الرقص والتواجد فأول من أحدثه أصحاب السامري لما اتخذ لهم عجلا جسدا له خوار قاموا يرقصون حواليه ويتواجدون فهو دين الكفار وعباد العجل

“As for the Raqs (dancing/rhythmic movements) and Wajd (ecstacy/ecstatic emotion), the first ones to innovate it were the companions of As-Saamiri; when Samiree built the bellowing (golden) calf up for them they entered into the state of wajd while performing raqs around it. This is the religion of kuffar and the way of those who worship the calf”

[Tafseer al-Qurtubi (11/23) & Awn al-Ma’bood (13/187)]

Imaam Abu Abdullah Shams ud-Deen al-Qurtubi said under the explanation of the verse 35 of Soorah Al-Anfaal that:

ففيه رد على الجهال من الصوفية الذين يرقصون ويصفقون ويصعقون. وذلك كله منكر يتنزه عن مثله العقلاء، ويتشبه فاعله بالمشركين فيما كانوا يفعلونه عند البيت

“In it is the refutation of the ignorant Soofis who dance, clap their hands, and scream and shout. All of that is munkar which every sound minded person remains distant from. These people who perform this act resemble to those mushrik (idolaters) who performed (the same) at the house (of Allaah).”

[Tafseer al-Qurtubi (7/400)]

One of the Soofis himself, named Abdul Azeez ad-Dabbaagh, whom they regard as the Gawth of his era, who also performed a number of alleged miracles, comments on the origin of Hadrah (soofi dance):

“Al Dabbagh states that it (i.e. soofi dancing) didn’t exist during the first three generations of Islam. And this accords with what the religious scholars have affirmed. Al Dabbagh then notes that in the fourth generation four or five friends of God who were endowed with illumination and had disciples and followers were in fact the origin of the ecstatic dance. They observed how the angels worship God and are engaged in recollection. Al dabbagh explains: “there are some angels …who recollect God with their tongue and their whole body. You see their body swaying to the right and to the left, and swaying forward and backward.’ These few friends, while absent in beholding God unconsciously imitated the angels. But this was a sign of their weakness, and their followers adorned themselves in this ‘external attire’. When this first small group of friends of God passed away, ‘the people of external attire’ then occupied themselves with the ecstatic dance. Indeed, they increased its movement and added musical instruments”

[Al-Ibriz by ad-Dabbaagh (P. 741 – 742) as quoted from a soofi website]

Ignoring the fairy tale that he relates afterwards, he confesses that Raqs is the innovation of later people, alhamdulillah. Here, I remember the words of Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ((صَدَقَكَ وَهْوَ كَذُوبٌ)) ((He told you the truth though he is a Liar)) [Saheeh Bukhaari (3275)]. Truly, Allaah many a times manifests the truth on the tongues of these people also, though they are liars and chief innovators.


2) The sayings of the Scholars of Islaam concerning the Raqs of Soofiyah

The Madhab of Hanafiyyah:

  • 1- Shams ul-A’immah Abdul Azeez bin Ahmed bin Nasr al-Halwaa’ee al-Hanafi (D. 456)

He said:

السماع والقول والرقص الذى يفعله المتصوفة فى زماننا حرام

“Al-Samaa’ (singing), Al-Qawl (Qawwaali), and Ar-Raqs (dancing) which are done by the Soofis of our times are Haraam”

[Fataawa Alamgeeri (5/352)]

  • 2- Al-Bazzaazi al-Hanafi (D. 827)

He said in Al-Fataawa al-Bazzaaziyah

((….و غرضُه استماع الدف و المزمار واللعب بالرقص الذي أحدثه أولاً السامري حين أخرج لهم عجلاً جسداً له خوار، وقد نقلَ صاحبُ الهداية (المرغيناني) فيها: أنّ المغنّي للناس، إنما لا يَقْبَل شهادَتَه؛ لأنّه يجمَعُهم على كبيرة، والقرطبي: على أنّ هذا الغناء وضرب القضيب والرقص حرام بالإجماع عند مالك وأبي حنيفة والشافعي وأحمد. ذكر ذلك في مواضعَ من كتابه.

وسيّد الطائفة الشيخ أحمد اليَسوي صرّحَ بحرمته، ورأيتُ فتوى شيخ الإسلام جلال الملّة والدين (الكرماني) أنّ مُستَحلّ هذا الرقص كافرٌ، ولما عُلِمَ أنّ حرمَتَهُ بالإجماع لزم أن يكفِّر مُسْتَحِلَّه. وللشيخ الزمخشري في ” كشافه ” كلماتٌ فيهم، تقوم بها عليهم الطّامة، ولصاحب ” النهاية ” و الإمام المحبوبي أيضاً كلام أشدّ من ذلك. انتهى

In short: “Listening of Daff, musical instrucments and dancing was first introduced by as-Saamiri when he made the golden calf”

  • 3- And Sayyid ut-Taa’ifah Ahmed al-Yaswi has affirmed to its being Haraam.
  • 4- And Al-Karmaani al-Hanafi has given the fatwa that whoever considers this raqs to be permissible is a Kaafir!
  • 5- Zamakhshari in his Kashshaaf
  • 6- The author of Nihaayah and
  • 7- Imaam al-Mahboobi
  • Also have an even harsher verdict than that.

[Al-Fataawa Al-Bazzaaziyah by al-Bazzaazi al-Hanafi (4/349)]

Note: The Hanafi Madhab is the strictest in this regard, and yet most of those who do Raqs in sub-continent are ironically Hanafis (Brelwis/Soofis).

  • 8- Abu al-Barakaat Abdullah bin Ahmed bin Mahmood al-Nasafi al-Hanafi (D. 710)

He said after mentioning the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) “Everything with which a man amuses himself is haraam except three (things): a man’s training of his horse, his playing with his wife, and his shooting with his bow and arrow” that:

وهذا نصٌّ صريحٌ في تحريم الرقص الذي يسمّيه المتصوفة الوقت وسماع الطيب، وإنّما هو سماعٌ فيه أنواعُ الفسق وأنواعُ العذاب في الآخرة. انتهى

“This is an explicit proof in the prohibition of raqs which the Soofis of the era have named the good samaa, and it is only a Samaa which involves forms of evil sinning, and forms of punishment on the Last Day”

[Sharh al-Kanz by Al-Nasafi al-Hanafi]

  • 9- Al-Aalim bin al-‘Alaa al-Hanafi (D. 800)

He mentions in his Fataawa Tataarkhaaniyah from Al-Khassaaf:

هل يجوز الرقص والسماع؟

“Is Samaa and Raqs permissible?”

He replied:

لا يجوز ، وذَكَرَ في “الذخيرة” أنّه كبيرة …

“It is not permissible. And he mentioned in Adh-Dhakheerah that it is a Major sin…”

[Al-Fataawa al-Tataarkhaaniyyah by Ibn al-Alaa al-Hanafi]

  • 10- Allaamah Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Ismaa’eel at-Tahtaawi al-Hanafi (D. 1231)

He said:

وأما الرقص والتصفيق والصريخ وضرب الأوتار والصنج والبوق الذي يفعله بعض من يدعي التصوف فإنه حرام بالإجماع لأنها زي الكفار

“As for Dancing, Clapping, screaming, beating of stringed instruments and castenets, and blowing trumpets which is done by some of those people who claim Tasawwuf, is indeed Haraam with consensus (Ijmaa) because it is the fashion of Kuffaar.”

[Haashiyah Ala Maraaqi al-Falaah (1/215)]

  • 11- Alaa’ ud-Deen al-Khawaarzimi al-Hanafi i.e. al-Tarjumaani (D. 655)

He said:

سُئل الحلواني عمَّن سَمّوا أنفسهم الصوفيّة، واختصّوا بنوع لِبْسةٍ، واشتغلوا باللهو والرقص، وادّعوا لأنفسهم المنزلَةَ، فقال: افْتَرَوا على الله كذباً

“Al-Halwaani was asked about those who call themselves Soofiyah, and they specify a special clothing, and they indulge in Lahw (waste of time) and Raqs (dancing), and they claim for themselves a Manzil, so he said: ‘They have forged a Lie on Allaah’”

[Al-Yateemah al-Dahr fi Fataawa Ahl il-Asr]

  • 12- Shaykh Abu Muhammad Mahmood bin Abi al-Qaasim bin Badraan al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 665)

He has written a full book in refutation of Samaa and Raqs, and in that book, he said:

ألا فإن الرقص وإستماع الغناء الشبابات واللعب بالشطرنج ولبس الخرقة من المشايخ وتقليد الجهال من العباد أمر تبين زيغة عند أهل الإسلام والسنة.

“Listen o People, Indeed Raqs (dancing), listening to music, playing flutes, playing chess, wearing clothes from the Mashaaykh (peers), making taqleed of ignorant worshippers (i.e. wearing or reading any special thing specified by them) are things whose misguidance is evident near the people of Islaam and Sunnah.”

[Kitaab al-Nihaa an ir-Raqs wal Istimaa’ (2/676)]

  • 13- Abu Abdullah Zayn ud-Deen ar-Raazi al-Hanafi (D. 666)

He said:

ويجبُ منعُ الصوفية الذين يدَّعون الوَجْدَ والمحبَّة عن رفع الصوت وتمزيق الثياب عند سماع الغناء؛ لأن ذلك حرامٌ عند سماع القرآن فكيف عند سماع الغناء الذي هو حرام خصوصاً في هذا الزمان. انتهى

“Stopping the Soofiyah is necessary, those who claim Wajd (ecstacy) and love from raising the voices and tearing the shirts upon hearing music, for indeed that (act) is Haraam when listening to Qur’aan, so what about when listening to music which is specially Haraam in this era.”

[Tuhfat al-Mulook (1/284)]

  • 14- Allaaamah Haskafi al-Hanafi (D. 1252)

Haskafi narrates from Sharh al-Wahbaaniyyah saying:

وَمَنْ يَسْتَحِلُّ الرَّقْصَ قَالُوا بِكُفْرِهِ … وَلَا سِيَّمَا بِالدُّفِّ يَلْهُو وَيَزْمُرُ

“And whoever permits Raqs (dancing) they (the hanafiyah) have given the fatwa of his Kufr, especially when it’s with Daff playing and singing songs”

[Al-Durr al-Mukhtaar (4/259)]

  • 15- Allaamah Shihaab ud-Deen al-Aaloosi al-Hanafi (D. 1270)

He said in his Tafseer:

ومن السماع المحرم سماع متصوفة زماننا وإن خلا عن رقص فإن مفاسده أكثر من أن تحصى وكثير مما يسمعونه من الأشعار من أشنع ما يتلى ومع هذا يعتقدونه قربة ويزعمون أن أكثرهم رغبة فيه أشدهم رغبة أو رهبة قاتلهم الله تعالى أنى يؤفكون.

“And from the prohibited Samaa is the samaa of Soofis of our time even if it is free from raqs, for indeed its corruptions are more than you can imagine, and most of what they listen from the poetries is from the worst of abominable poetries that are recited, and along with that they believe it to be a cause of closeness (to Allaah) and claim that the person most eager in this practice is the most severe of them in (Allaah’s) fear, May Allaah destroy them where they have deviated.”

[Rooh ul-Ma’aani (11/74)]

  • 16- Al-Allaamah Ibraaheem bin Muhammad al-Halabi al-Hanafi (D. 956) – has also written a separate booklet on the prohibition of Raqs and Samaa named “Ar-Rahs wal Waqs li-Mustahill ar-Raqs”.

The Madhab of Ash-Shaafi’eeyyah:

  • 17- Imaam Muhammad bin Idrees ash-Shaafi’ee rahimahullah (D. 204)

The founder of the very Madhab said:

«خَلَّفْتُ بِالْعِرَاقِ شَيْئًا أَحْدَثَتْهُ الزَّنَادِقَةُ يُسَمُّونَهُ التَّغبِيرَ، يَشْتَغِلُونَ بِهِ عَنِ الْقُرْآنِ»

“I have left behind in Iraaq something which the heretics (al-Zanaadiqah) innovated; they call it taghyeer; with it they distract the people from the Qur’aan”

[Narrated by Abu Nu’aym in Hilyat al-Awliyaa (9/146), Az-Zubaydee in Sharh Ihyaa Uloom ud-Deen (6/458), Al-Khallaal in al-Amar bil Ma’roof wal Nahi An il-Munkar (P. 36), and Ibn al-Jawzee in Talbees Iblees with a Hasan chain]

The meaning of Taghyeer:

Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee mentions:

وقد ذر أبو منصور الأزهري – المغيرة قوم يغيرون بذكر الله بدعاء وتضرع وقد سموا ما يطربون فيه من الشعر في ذكر الله عز وجل تغييراً كأنهم إذا شاهدوها بالألحان طربوا ورقصوا فسموا مغيرة لهذا المعنى.

“Abu Mansoor al-Azhari mentioned, Al-mughayyirah [it is the name of the people who make taghyeer] refers to people who change by remembering Allaah with prayer and showing humility, and they have called the poetry in the remembrance of Allaah with which they get ecstatic “taghyeer”. It were as if when they performed it with a tune [that is, singing it with a melody: bi al-alhaan] they become inebriated and danced, so they called it al-mughayyirah for that reason.”

[See, Talbees Iblees by Ibn al-Jawzee (1/205), also see: Lisaan al-Arab (5/5)]

Similarly, Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee also said:

الغناء لهو مكروه يشبه الباطل ومن استكثر مِنْهُ فهو سفيه شهادته قَالَ وكان الشافعي يكره التعبير

“Singing [al-ghinaa’] is objectionable play [lahw makrooh]; it resembles untruth [al-baatil]; whoever indulges in it a lot, he is a fool and his testimony is to be rejected [in a court]. Al-Shaafi‘ee used to dislike taghyeer.”

[Talbees Iblees (1/205)]

Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee mentioned:

وقد كان رؤساء أصحاب الشافعي رضي الله عنهم ينكرون السماع. وأما قدماؤهم فلا يعرف بينهم خلاف وأما أكابر المتأخرين فعلى الإنكار. منهم أبو الطيب الطبري وله في ذم الغناء والمنع كتاب مصنف حدثنا به عنه أبو القاسم الحريري ومنهم القاضي أبو بكر محمد بن مظفر الشامي أنبأنا عبد الوهاب بن المبارك الأنماطي عنه. قال لا يجوز الغناء ولا سماعه ولا الضرب بالقضيب . قال ومن أضاف إلى الشافعي هذا فقد كذب عليه. وقد نص الشافعي في كتاب أدب القضاء . على أن الرجل إذا دام على سماع الغناء ردت شهادته وبطلت عدالته.

“The chief companions of Imam al-Shaafi‘ee—may Allaah be pleased with him—denounced al-samaa‘ (sessions of singing and drumming with sticks on cushions or hides, or tambourines, and/or clapping of hands, and/or playing of musical instruments, and/or dancing held by pseudo-Sufis in the belief that it is an acceptable form of worship), and as for his early followers, there was no disagreement among them [that it is prohibited], and as for the great later followers of the latter period they also denounced it; among them was:

  • 18- Abu al-Tayyib al-Tabari who wrote a book condemning and prohibiting al-samaa’; Abu al-Qaasim al-Hareeri narrated this book to us.”

Another one [of the great later Shaafi’ee scholars who denounced al-samaa‘] was:

  • 19- Qadi [al-Qudaat] Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Muzaffar al-Shaami [d. 488 / 1095; Baghdad]. ‘Abd al-Wahhaab ibn al-Mubaarak al Anmaati [d. 538 / 1143; Baghdad] reported to me from him [Abu Bakr al-Shaami] that he said:

Singing is not permitted nor listening to it, nor drumming with sticks. He said: Whoever attributes to al-Shaafi‘ee [the permissibility of] that has lied about him. Indeed, al-Shaafi‘ee stated in his book Adab al-Qaadi that if a man persisted in listening to singing his testimony [in court] must be refused and his integrity [‘adaalat] would be vitiated.

After narrating this, Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee said:

 فهذا قول علماء الشافعية وأهل التدين منهم وإنما رخص في ذلك من متأخريهم من قل علمه وغلبه هواه.وقال الفقهاء من أصحابنا لا نقبل شهادة المغني والرقاص والله الموفق.

“This is what the learned and pious Shaafi’ee ulama have maintained; those who were lenient in this matter were among the later Shaafi’ees whose knowledge was little and whose desires gained the better of them. The fuqahaa’ of our companions said: The testimony of a singer or a person who dances may not be accepted. Allaah is the one who grants success.”

[Talbees Iblees (1/205, 206)]

  • 20- Sultaan ul-Ulama Al-Izz ud-Deen bin Abdus-Salaam ash-Shaafi’ee (D. 660)

He said:

” وأما الرقص والتصفيق : فخِفَّة ورعونة مشبهة لرعونة الإناث ، لا يفعلها إلا راعن أو متصنع كذاب ؛ وكيف يتأتى الرقص المتزن بأوزان الغناء ممن طاش لبه وذهب قلبه ، وقد قال عليه السلام : ( خير القرون قرني ثم الذين يلونهم ثم الذين يلونهم ) ، ولم يكن أحد من هؤلاء الذين يُقتدى بهم يفعل شيئا من ذلك ، وإنما استحوذ الشيطان على قوم يظنون أن طربهم عند السماع إنما هو متعلق بالله عز وجل ، ولقد مانوا [ أي : كذبوا ] فيما قالوا ، وكذبوا فيما ادعوا ؛ من جهة أنهم عند سماع المطربات وجدوا لذتين اثنتين : إحداهما لذة المعارف والأحوال المتعلقة بذي الجلال ، والثانية : لذة الأصوات والنغمات والكلمات الموزونات الموجبات للذات النفس التي ليست من الدين ولا متعلقة بأمور الدين ؛ فلما عظمت عندهم اللذتان غلطوا فظنوا أن مجموع اللذة إنما حصل بالمعارف والأحوال ، وليس كذلك بل الأغلب عليهم حصول لذات النفوس التي ليست من الدين بشيء . وقد حرم بعض العلماء التصفيق لقوله عليه السلام : ( إنما التصفيق للنساء ) ، ولعن عليه السلام المتشبهات من النساء بالرجال ، والمتشبهين من الرجال بالنساء .

ومن هاب الإله وأدرك شيئا من تعظيمه لم يتصور منه رقص ولا تصفيق ، ولا يصدر التصفيق والرقص إلا من غبي جاهل ، ولا يصدران من عاقل فاضل .

“With regard to dancing and clapping, it is frivolity and silliness like that of females; no one does such things except one who is a show-off or a liar. How could anyone regard it as justifiable to dance to the rhythm of the music and become oblivious when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “The best generations are my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them,” and no one among those exemplary generations did such things?… It cannot be imagined that one who fears Allah and understands anything of what it means to venerate Him would dance or clap. Clapping and dancing only come from one who is foolish and ignorant; they do not come from anyone who is wise and virtuous.”

[Qawaa’id Al-Ahkaam fi Masaalih al-Anaam (2/186)]

And in the same book, he also said:

الرقص لا يتعاطاه إلا ناقص العقل، ولا يصلُح إلا للنساء

“No one deals with dancing except a senseless person, and it is not befitting except for women”

[P. 679]

  • 21- Allaamah Taqi ud-Deen al-Husni ash-Shaafi’ee (D. 829)

In his book “Kifaayat al-Akhyaar” (1/159) which is a well relied upon book in the Shaafi’ee Madhab, he said while mentioning the types of people to whom the Zakaah is given:

“… الأراذل من المتصوّفة الذين قد اشتهر عنهم أنهم من أهل الصلاح المنقطعين لعبادة ربّهم ، قد اتخذ كل منهم زاوية أو مكاناً يُظهر فيه نوعاً من الذكر ، وقد لفَّ عليهم من له زي القوم وربّما انتمى أحدهم إلى أحد رجال القوم كالأحمدية والقادرية ، وقد كذبوا في الانتماء ، فهؤلاء لا يستحقّون شيئًا من الزكوات ، و لا يحلُّ دفع الزكاة إليهم

“The despicable Soofis, those who are famous for being among the people of righeousness who have disconnected from the worship of their Lord, each one of them has taken a dedicated room or a place in which he displays special form of Dhikr…. These are the people who do not deserve any share from the Zakaah, and nor is it permissible to deliver Zakaah to them.”

In another place, Shaykh al-Husni also said while mentioning those whose testimony is not to be accepted:

“…فلا تُقبل شهادة القمّام ، وهو الذي يجمع القمامة أي الكناسة ويحملها ، وكذا القيّم في الحمّام ، ومَنْ يلْعب بالحمام يعني يُطيّرها لينظر تقلّبها في الجو ، وكذا المغنّي سواء أتى الناس أو أتوه ، وكذا الرّقاص كهذه الصوفيّة الذين يسعون إلى ولائم الظلمة والمكسة ، ويُظهرون التواجد عند رقصهم ، وتحريك رؤوسهم ، وتلويح لحاهم الخسيسة كصنع المجانين ، وإذا قُرئ القرآن لا يستمعون له ، ولا يُنصتون ، وإذا نعق مزمار الشيطان صاح بعضهم على بعض بالوسواس قاتلهم الله ما أفسقهم وأزهدهم في كتاب الله ، وأرغبَهم في مزمار الشيطان وقرن الشيطان ، عافانا الله من ذلك”.انتهى

“….. And similarly the testimony of Dancers like these Soofis is not acceptable as well….”

[Kifaayah al-Akhyaar (2225)]

  • 22- Shams ud-Deen al-Sharbeeni ash-Shaafi’ee – said while quoting from:
  • 23- Taaj ud-Deen as-Subki ash-Shaafi’ee – that:

قال السبكي وهو من كبار الأئمّة الشافعية: السماعُ على الصورة المعهودة منكرٌ وضلالة وهو من أفعال الجهلة والشياطين، ومَنْ زعم أن ذلك قُربة فقد كذب وافترى على الله، ومن قال: إنه يزيد في الذوق فهو جاهل أو شيطان، ومن نسبَ السماع إلى رسول الله يُؤدَّب أدباً شديداً ويدخل في زمرة الكاذبين عليه صلى الله عليه وسلم، ومن كذب عليه متعمداً فليتبوأ مقعده من النار، وليس هذا طريقة أولياء الله تعالى وحزبه وأتباع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، بل طريقة أهل اللهو واللعب والباطل وينكر على هذا باللسان واليد والقلب. انتهى.

“As-Subki said – and he was among the Major A’immah of Shaafi’eeyyah that: Al-Samaa’ upon its well known condition (i.e. singing, dancing, clapping, etc) is Munkar and a Misguidance and it is from the acts of ignorants and Devils, whoever claims that it is a source of closeness (to Allaah) has indeed lied and slandered upon Allaah, and whoever says that it increases in charm then he is a Jaahil (ignorant) or a Shaytaan (Devil), and whoever attributes Samaa’ to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) (even) with utmost respect enters under the heading of Liars upon him (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and whoever lies upon him intentionally then let him take his seat in Hell-Fire. And this is not the way of the friends of Allaah, nor is it the obedience of Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), rather it is the way of the people of Hawa, misguidance, and Baatil, and such a person should be refuted with the tongue, the hand, and the heart.”

[Al-Mughni al-Muhtaaj (4/426), and it is also mentioned by Ad-Dameeri in Sharh al-Manhaaj]

  • 24- Imaam Sharf ud-Deen Ismaa’eel bin al-Muqri al-Yamni ash-Shaafi’ee (D. 837) – wrote a poem condemning the Raqs:

قالوا: رَقصْنا كما الأُحْبوشُ قد رقصوا                    بمسجد المصطفى، قُلنا: بلا كَذِبِ

الحُبْشُ ما رقصوا، لـكنهم لَعِبـوا                       مِنْ آلـة الحَرْبِ بالآلات واليَلَبِ

وذلـك اللـعبُ منـدوبٌ تَعلُّمُه                       في الشرع للحرب تدريباً لكلّ غبي

[See, Risaalah ar-Rahs wal Waqs li-Mustahill ar-Raqs by Allaamah Ibraaheem bin Muhammad al-Halabi al-Hanafi (D. 956): P. 42]

  • 25- Imaam Badr ud-Deen Ibn Jamaa’ah ash-Shaafi’ee (D. 733) – said after a detailed fatwa on the issue of Raqs and Samaa’:

فمن قال بإباحة هذا النوع فقد أحدَثَ في دين الله ما ليس منه

“Whoever opines for this type of Samaa’ (that is done in our times including raqs and all) as being permissible then he has innovated in the Deen of Allaah what is not a part of it.”

[Ithaaf as-Saadah al-Muttaqeen lil Zubaydee (6/458)]

The Madhab of Maalikiyyah:

  • 26- Imaam Maalik bin Anas al-Madani (D. 179) – the founder of the Madhab

Qaadhi Iyyaadh al-Maaliki narrated in Tarteeb al-Madaarik from Imaam Maalik:

ما كنا عند مالك وأصحابه حوله فقال رجل من أهل نصيبين يا أبا عبد الله عندنا قوم يقال لهم الصوفية يأكلون كثيراً ثم يأخذون في القصائد ثم يقومون فيرقصون.

فقال مالك: الصبيان هم؟ قال لا.

قال أمجانين؟ قال لا، قوم مشائخ وغير ذلك عقلاً.

قال مالك ما سمعت أن أحداً من أهل الإسلام يفعل هذا.

قال الرجل يل يأكلون ثم يقومون فيرقصون نوائب ويلطم بعضهم رأسه وبعضهم وجهه فضحك مالك ثم قام فدخل منزله.

فقال أصحاب مالك للرجل لقد كنت يا هذا مشؤوماً على صاحبنا، لقد جالسناه نيفاً وثلاثين سنة فما رأيناه ضحك إلا في هذا اليوم.

(Al-Musaybee said) “We were with Maalik while his companions were all around him. A man from Nusaybin [in Mardin Province of Turkey] said, “O Abu Abdullah (i.e. Imaam Maalik), there are people where we live who are called ‘Sufis’; they have a big feast and then they start to recite qasidas. Then they get up and dance.”

Maalik said, “Are they children?”

He said, “No.”

He [Maalik] said, “Are they crazy?”

He said, “No. They are aged men possessed of reason along with others.”

Maalik said, “I never heard of any people of Islam doing that.”

He said, “Indeed, they eat and then they get up and dance indefatigably and one of them slaps his head with his hand while another slaps his face.”

Thereupon Maalik laughed and then went into his house.

The companions of Maalik said to the man, Verily you are of ill fortune to our companion [Malik]! We have been sitting with him for over thirty years, yet we never saw him laugh till today!”

[Tarteeb al-Madaarik (2/53-53), Talbees Iblees (1/327)]

  • 27- Imaam Abu al-Abbaas Ahmed bin Umar bin Ibraaheem al-Qurtubi al-Maaliki (D. 656)

He said:

وَأَمَّا مَا ابْتَدَعَهُ الصُّوفِيَّةُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَمِنْ قَبِيلِ مَا لَا يُخْتَلَفُ فِي تَحْرِيمِهِ لَكِنَّ النُّفُوسَ الشَّهْوَانِيَّةَ غَلَبَتْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ يُنْسَبُ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ حَتَّى لَقَدْ ظَهَرَتْ مِنْ كَثِيرٍ مِنْهُمْ فِعْلَاتُ الْمَجَانِينِ وَالصِّبْيَانِ حَتَّى رَقَصُوا بِحَرَكَاتٍ مُتَطَابِقَةٍ وَتَقْطِيعَاتٍ مُتَلَاحِقَةٍ وَانْتَهَى التَّوَاقُحُ بِقَوْمٍ مِنْهُمْ إِلَى أَنْ جَعَلُوهَا مِنْ بَابِ الْقُرَبِ وَصَالِحِ الْأَعْمَالِ وَأَنَّ ذَلِكَ يُثْمِرُ سِنِيِّ الْأَحْوَالِ وَهَذَا عَلَى التَّحْقِيقِ مِنْ آثَارِ الزَّنْدَقَةِ وَقَوْلُ أَهْلِ الْمُخَرِّفَةِ وَاللَّهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ

“As for what the Soofis have innovated in this connection (i.e. Al-Ghinaa) is from the types of those concerning which there is no dispute in its unlawfulness. However, the fervent desires of those who are associated with good take over them so that many of them start displaying lunatic and childish acts. Indeed some of them even dance with repeated movements and rhythmic jerking, and some of them have had the audacity to claim that this dancing is a form of worship and a pious act, and that it produces high states. However, the truth is that it is a heretical deviation and the saying of fools.”

[Fath al-Baari (2/442)]

  • 28- Ibn al-Haaj al-Maaliki (D. 737)

He said in his book “Al-Madkhal” (3/99) while talking about Sufis and the innovation of singing and dancing, the following:
“It was mentioned that some people asked for a fatwa in the year 661 H, and sought and collected the opinions of the four Mazhabs in this matter, and its wording is:

“What is the opinion of the masters of Fiqh, the Imams of this Religion, and the Scholars of the Muslims – May Allaah grant them success to His obedience, and assist them in what Pleases Him – in a group from among the Muslims, who arrived to a city and headed to the Masjid, and started clapping, singing, and dancing, once with their hands and in another time using Daffs and Shababah. Is such an act islamically permissible in a Masjid, answer us – May Allaah the Exalted reward you and have mercy on you?

The Shafi’is said: Samaa’ (Listening [to the above mentioned]) is a Detested form of play which is similar to Batil (Falsehood), and whoever says by it (i.e. agrees on it and accepts it), his testimony would be rejected (Turad Shahadatuh), and Allaah knows best.

The Malikis said: The rulers and the ones responsible should restrain and prevent them [from this], and eject them (expel them) from the Masjids until they Repent and Return [to Allaah], and Allaah knows best.

The Hanbalis said: Whoever does this, one should not pray behind him, and his testimony should not be accepted, and his ruling should not be accepted even if he was a judge/ruler, and if he performs a marriage ‘Aqd (contract) then it is Fasid (Void), and Allaah knows best.

The Hanafis said: The rug that they dance on is not to be prayed on until it is washed, and the earth that they dance on is not to be prayed on until its sand is dug and thrown away, and Allaah knows best.”

[Taken from Systemoflife.com]

  • 29- Imaam Abu Bakr at-Turtooshi al-Maaliki (D. 520)

He was asked:

“What do you say, our master faqeeh, about the madhab of Soofiyah. A group of people among them gather in one place and they frequently make the dhikr of Allaah and Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), then they play drums, and some of them start dancing and enter in the state of wajd until they become unconscious then present a thing which they eat. Is it permissible to be present with them or not?”

He replied:

يرحمك الله مذهب الصوفية بطالة وجهالة وضلالة وما الاسلام إلا كتاب الله وسنة رسوله وأما الرقص والتواجد فأول من أحدثه أصحاب السامري لما اتخذ لهم عجلا جسدا له خوار قاموا يرقصون حواليه ويتواجدون فهو دين الكفار وعباد العجل.
وأما القضيب فأول من اتخذه الزنادقة ليشغلوا به المسلمين عن كتاب الله تعالى وإنما كان يجلس النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مع أصحابه كأنما على رءوسهم الطير من الوقار فينبغي للسلطان ونوابه أن يمنعهم من الحضور في المساجد وغيرها ولا يحل لأحد يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر أن يحضر معهم ولا يعينهم على باطل هذا مذهب مالك وأبي حنيفة والشافعي وأحمد بن حنبل وغيرهم من أئمة المسلمين. وبالله التوفيق

“May Allaah have mercy upon you, the madhab of Soofiyah is sheer iddleness, ignorance, and misguidance, and Islaam is about nothing but the book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, and as for raqs and wajd then the first ones to innovate it were the companions of As-Saamiri; when Samiree built the bellowing (golden) calf up for them they entered into the state of wajd while performing raqs around it. This is the religion of kuffar and the way of those who worship the calf.

And as for playing drums (with sticks) then the first ones who used it were the zanaadiqah (heretics) in order to stray the Muslims away from the book of Allaah. When the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to sit with his companions the state of their respect and honor was such as if the birds were sitting over their heads. Hence the ruler and his representatives should prevent these people from entering into the mosques and other such places, and it is not permissible for anyone who believes in Allaah and the Last Day to sit with them and aid them in committing Baatil. This is the madhab of Maalik, Abu Haneefah, Shaafi’ee, Ahmed bin Hanbal and others from the A’immah of Muslims. And Allaah is the source of strength.”

[Tafseer al-Qurtubi (11/23) & Awn al-Ma’bood (13/187)]

  • 30- Imaam Taqi ud-Deen Abu Amr Ibn as-Salaah ash-Shaafi’ee (D. 643)

He was asked about a man who plays Daff, flutes, and performs dance, as to whether he is a sinner or not and whether his adaalah (integrity) would be vitiated?

He replied:

نعم يَأْثَم بذلك ويفسق وَتسقط عَدَالَته وحالته هَذِه وَهَذَا السماع الْمُعْتَاد حرَام غليظ عِنْد الْعلمَاء

“Yes, he is a sinner due to that, a Faasiq, and his integrity (Adaalah) is vitiated, and this condition of his, and this famous samaa is Haraam and Ghaleedh (disgusting) according to the Ulama.”

[Fataawa Ibn as-Salaah (2/498)]

  • 31- Imaam Abu Ishaaq ash-Shaatibi al-Maaliki rahimahullah (D. 790)

He said:

وقع السؤال عن قوم يتسمون بالفقراء، يزعمون أنهم سلكوا طريق الصوفية، فيجتمعون في بعض الليالي، ويأخذون في الذكر الجهري على صوت واحد، ثم في الغناء والرقص إلى آخر الليل، ويحضر معهم بعض المتسمين بالفقهاء، يترسمون برسم الشيوخ الهداة إلى سلوك ذلك الطريق؛ هل هذا العمل صحيح في الشرع أم لا؟

“A question was asked about a nation of people who are called Fuqara, they claim that they follow the way of Soofiyah, hence they gather together in some nights, and get involved in making dhikr out loud in simultaneous voices, then they get involved in music and dancing until the end of night….. Is this act correct in the Sharee’ah or not?”

Imaam Shaatibi replied:

فوقع الجواب بأن ذلك كله من البدع المحدثات، المخالفة طريقة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وطريقة أصحابه والتابعين لهم بإحسان.

“These are all newly invented innovations (Bid’ah), which oppose the way of Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), the way of his Companions, and that of the Taabi’een who followed them in good.”

[Al-I’tisaam by Ash-Shaatibi (1/337), Tahqeeq al-Hilaali]

The Madhab of Hanaabilah:

  • 32- Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal (D. 241) – the founder of the Madhab

Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee said:

أما مذهب أحمد رحمه الله. فإنه كان الغناء في زمانه إنشاد قصائد الزهد إلا أنهم لما كانوا يلحنونها اختلفت الرواية عنه. فروى عنه ابنه عبد الله أنه قال: الغناء ينبت النفاق في القلب، لا يعجبني. وروى عنه إسماعيل بن إسحاق الثقفي: أنه سئل عن استماع القصائد فقال: أكرهه، هو بدعة، ولا يجالسون.

وروى عنه أبو الحارث أنه قال: التغيير بدعة، فقيل: له أنه يرقق القلب. فقال هو بدعة. وروى عنه يعقوب الهاشمي: التغيير بدعة محدث. وروى عنه يعقوب بن غياث أكره التغيير وأنه نهى عن استماعه.

قال المصنف : فهذه الروايات كلها دليل على كراهية الغناء، قال أبو بكر الخلال كره أحمد القصائد لما قيل له إنهم يتماجنون ثم روى عنه ما يدل على أنه لا بأس بها. قال المروزي. سألت أبا عبد الله عن القصائد. فقال. بدعة. فقلت له: إنهم يهجرون . فقال لا يبلغ بهم هذا كله.

“In the time of Ahmad [d. 241 / 855; Baghdad]—may Allah show him mercy—al-ghinaa’ consisted in reciting poems [ qasidahs ] of worldly-renouncement [ zuhd ] except that since they used to [sometimes] sing them [to a tune] the reports from him are [seemingly] contradictory.  His son Abd Allah reported from him that he said: “Singing produces hypocrisy in the heart; it doesn’t please me.”  Ismaa‘eel ibn Ishaaq [ibn Ibraheem] al-Thaqafi [d. 293 / 906; Baghdad] reported that Ahmad was asked about listening to qasidahs and he replied: “I dislike it.  It is a deviant innovation [bid‘ah].  One should not sit with [people who sing them].”

Abu al-Haarith [al-Saa’igh] reported:

Ahmad said: “Al-taghyeer (singing and dancing) is a deviant innovation [bid‘ah].”  It was said to him: “It softens the hearts.”  He insisted: “It is a deviant innovation.”

Ya‘qoob [ibn ‘Abbaas] al-Haashimi reported from Ahmad: “Al-taghyeer is a deviant innovation [bid ‘ah muhdath].”  Ya‘qoob ibn al-Ghiyaath reported from him that he said “I dislike al-taghyeer” and he said that he prohibited listening to it.

[Talbees Iblees by Ibn al-Jawzee (1/203) & Dhamm ash-Shabbaabah wa’r-Raqs wa’s-Samaa’ by Ibn Qudaamah (P. 21) & Amr bil Ma’roof by al-Khallaal (P. 97)]

  • 33- Imaam Mawfaq ud-Deen Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali (D. 620)

He said:

فصلٌ في الملاهي: وهي على ثلاثة أَضْرُبٍ؛ محرّم وضربٌ مباح وهو الدُّف فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: (( أعلنوا النكاح واضربوا عليه بالدف )) أخرجه مسلم.

وذكر أصحابنا وأصحاب الشافعي أنه مكروه في غير النكاح، لأنه يُروى عن عمر: ((أنه كان إذا سمع الدف بعث فنظر فإن كان في وليمة سكت وإن كان في غيرها عمد بالدِّرَّة )).

وأمّا الضرب به أي: بالدف للرجال فمكروه على كل حال؛ لأنه إنما كان يَضْرِبُ به النساء والمخنثون المتشبهون بهن، ففي ضرب الرجال تشبه بالنساء وقد لعن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم المتشبهين من الرجال بالنساء. انتهى

“Section concerning the musical instruments: And these are of three types: Prohibited form and Permissible form which is Al-Daff, for the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Publicize the Marriage and beat the Daff for it” Narrated by Muslim.

Our companions (i.e. Hanbalees) and the companions of Ash-Shaafi’ee have mentioned that it (Daff) is Makrooh (disliked) in other than Marriages for it is narrated from Umar that: “Whenever he would listen to the Daff, he would go down to inspect, thus if it was in a Waleemah (Marriage feast), he would remain silent, but if it was in an event other than that, he would use the whips.”

And as for beating it i.e. the Daff, then it is Makrooh in all conditions, for indeed it is something that women beat and those womanish people who resemble them. Hence in the beating of men is resemblence to the women and the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has indeed cursed those men who resemble the women.”

[Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah (14/159-160)]

And similarly, Imaam Ibn Qudaamah was asked:

ما تقول السادة الفقهاء أحسن الله توفيقهم فيمن يسمع الدف والشبابة والغناء ويتواجد، حتى إنه يرقص، هل يحل ذلك أم لا مع اعتقاده أنه محب لله، وأن سماعه وتواجده ورقصه في الله؟ وفي أي حال يحل الضرب بالدف هل هو مطلق، أو في حالة مخصوصة ؟. وهل يحل سماع الشعر بالألحان في الأماكن الشريفة، مثل المساجد وغيرها؟

“What do the fuqaha’ (may Allaah bless them) say about one who listens to the duff (hand-drum), flute and singing, and get carried away until he starts to dance? Is that permissible or not? He believes that he loves Allaah and that his listening to it, getting carried away and dancing are for the sake of Allaah! Please advise us, may Allaah reward you and have mercy on you.”

He replied:

إن فاعل هذا مخطئ ، ساقط المروءة ، والدائم على هذا الفعل : مردود الشهادة في الشرع ، غير مقبول القول ، ومقتضى هذا : أنه لا تُقبل روايته لحديث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، ولا شهادته برؤية هلال رمضان ، ولا أخباره الدينية .

وأما اعتقاده محبة الله : فإنه يمكن أن يكون محبّاً لله سبحانه ، مطيعًا له ، في غير هذا ، ويجوز أن يكون له معاملة مع الله سبحانه ، وأعمال صالحة في غير هذا المقام .

وأما هذا : فمعصية ولعب ، ذمَّه الله تعالى ورسوله ، وكرهه أهل العلم ، وسموه بدعة ، ونهوا عن فعله ، ولا يُتقرب إلى الله سبحانه بمعاصيه ، ولا يُطاع بارتكاب مناهيه ، ومَن جعل وسيلته الى الله سبحانه معصيته : كان حظه الطرد والإبعاد ، ومن اتخذ اللهو واللعب دينًا : كان كمن سعى في الأرض الفساد ، ومن طلب الوصول إلى الله سبحانه من غير طريق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وسنَّته : فهو بعيد من الوصول إلى المراد .

“The one who does that is mistaken and is lacking in decency. The one who persists in doing those things is one whose testimony is to be rejected according to sharee‘ah, and his opinion is not to be accepted. The implication of that is that his narration of hadeeth from the Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) is not to be accepted, and neither is his testimony with regard to sighting the new moon of Ramadan or anything pertaining to religious matters. 

With regard to him believing that it is based on love of Allaah, we say that he could show his love for Allaah and obedience towards Him in other ways, and he could show devotion to Allaah, may He be glorified, and do righteous deeds in other ways. But as for this, it is a sin and playing about. It was condemned by Allaah, may He be exalted, and His Messenger, and was disliked (regarded as makrooh) by the scholars, who called it an innovation (bid‘ah) and forbade people to do it. We cannot draw close to Allaah, may He be glorified, by doing acts of disobedience to Him, and He cannot be obeyed by doing things that He has forbidden. The one who commits sin as a means of drawing closer to Him will be met with rejection; the one who takes idle pursuits and playing about as acts of religious devotion is like one who spreads mischief in the land. The one who seeks to reach Allaah, may He be glorified, via a way other than the way and Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him), is far from reaching his goal”

[Dhamm ash-Shabbaabah wa’r-Raqs wa’s-Samaa’ by Ibn Qudaamah, MS (p. 2)]

  • 34- Imaam Ibn Aqeel al-Hanbali (D. 513)

Imaam al-Qurtubi further said while quoting from Ibn Aqeel al-Hanbali (D. 513):

قال الإمام أبو الوفاء ابن عقيل: قد نص القرآن على النهي عن الرقص فقال:” ولا تمش في الأرض مرحا” وذم المختال. والرقص أشد المرح والبطر. أو لسنا الذين قسنا النبيذ على الخمر لاتفاقها في الإطراب والسكر، فما بالنا لا نقيس القضيب وتلحين الشعر معه على الطنبور والمزمار والطبل لاجتماعها. فما أقبح من ذي لحية، وكيف إذا كان شبيه، يرقص ويصفق على إيقاع الألحان والقضبان، وخصوصا إن كانت أصوات لنسوان ومردان، وهل يحسن لمن بين يديه الموت والسؤال والحشر والصراط، صم هو إلى إحدى الدارين، يشمس بالرقص شمس البهائم، ويصفق تصفيق النسوان، و الله لقد رأيت مشايخ في عمري ما بان لهم سن من التبسم فضلا عن الضحك مع إدمان مخاطتي لهم.

“Al-Imam Abu al-Wafaa Ibn Aqeel (D. 513) said: The Qur’aan has cited the prohibition of raqs (dancing) saying, ‘and do not walk through the earth exultantly’ and it condemned arrogance and raqs is the most extreme form of exultance and arrogance.

Are we not among those who make the analogy of nabeedh over khamr (alcohol) due to the agreement of both of them in causing inebriation and intoxication, now what is wrong with us that we don’t make the analogy of reed pipes and lutes and drums to drum sticks [they used to drum with them on the likes of leather cushions] and the singing of poetry in a melodious fashion since they are all inebriating? Is there anything which prejudices [that is, debases] reason and dignity and demotes one from the rank of forbearance and propriety worse than the dancing of a bearded person?

Suppose further that the old man dances and claps according to the rhythm of a song and the drumming of sticks especially when the singing is that of women or beardless youths [then how much more repugnant the matter becomes!] Does it suit a soul before whom looms death, the questioning of the grave, the resurrection, the Bridge [to be crossed over the expanse of Hell] and who is destined to one of the two eternal abodes to bolt off like a wild horse/camel/mule clapping like women?

By Allaah I have witnessed old men in my days who never revealed a tooth in smiling let alone when in laughing [he means to say that they never smiled let alone laughed, and that because they were aware of the imminence of death] although I have long kept company with them”

[Tafseer Qurtubi (10/263)]

Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee quotes from Abu Al-Wafaa Ibn Aqeel saying:

وقد سئل ابن عقيل عن تواجدهم وتخريق ثيابهم فقال خطأ وحرام وقد نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن إضاعة المال وعن شق الجيوب فقال له قائل فإنهم لا يعقلون ما يفعلون. قال إن حضروا هذه الأمكنة مع علمهم أن الطرب يغلب عليهم فيزيل عقولهم أثموا بما يدخل عليهم من التخريق وغيره مما يفسد ولا يسقط عنهم خطاب الشرع لأنهم مخاطبون قبل الحضور بتجنب هذه المواضع التي تفضي إلى ذلك كما هم منهيون عن شرب المسكر فإذا سكروا وجرى منهم إفساد الأموال لم يسقط الخطاب لسكرهم كذلك هذا لطرب الذي يسميه أهل التصوف وجداً إن صدقوا فيه فسكر طبعه وإن كذبوا فنبيذ ومع الصحو فلا سلامة فيه مع الحالتين، وتجنب مواضع الريب واجب.

“Ibn ‘Aqeel, [the leader of the Hanbalis of Baghdad in his day] was asked about the Sufis’tawaajud and their ripping open their shirts and he replied that it is folly and unlawful for the Prophet prohibited destroying ones property and tearing open the front of ones shirt. Somebody objected asserting that they do not know what they do and he answered him saying: “If they go to such places in the knowledge that they will become inebriated and lose their minds they sin in what wrong they might do like their ripping their shirts and so on and they do not cease to be responsible before the law because they are responsible before going to places where such evil inevitably results to stay away from them. Consider that they are prohibited from drinking intoxicants and if they do drink them and then it happens that they destroy some property they are not excused because of their intoxication. Similarly the case of that inebriation which the Sufis call wajd, for if they are truthful in claiming that they are not conscious of what they do [in the state of wajd ] then their wajd is the natural [and inevitable] result [of dancing and listening to music and singing] and so is analogous to drinking a [potent] intoxicant, whereas if they are lying [in that they are conscious of what they do] their wajd is analogous to drinking a slightly intoxicant substance [ callednabeedh] in which case avoiding such doubtful matters is obligatory.”

[Talbees Iblees (P. 232)]

  • 35- Imaam Abu al-Faraj Ibn al-Jawzee (D. 597)

He has written a much detailed refutation of Soofis concerning their dancing and other innovations in his book Talbees Iblees, and he has destroyed all their reasonings and justifications for it. I will mention one of his sayings concerning raqs just as a formality but his detailed refutation in his book is more than enough for that purpose. He said:

أي معنى في الرقص إلا اللعب الذي يليق بالأطفال وما الذي فيه من تحريك القلوب إلى الآخرة، هذه والله مكبر باردة

“What is there in dancing other than play befit for children? What is there in it that could possibly inspire the hearts to remember the hereafter? There insistence of the legitimacy of dancing is indeed sheer obstinancy!”

[Talbees Iblees by Ibn al-Jawzee (1/231)]

  • 36- Imaam Ishaaq bin Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Ghaanim Abu Muhammad al-Hanbali rahimahullah (D. 634)

Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali said:

قُلْت: وَلَهُ رسائل كثيرة إلى الأعيان بالإِنكار عَلَيْهِم والنصح لَهُمْ. ورأيت بخطه كتابا أرسله الى الخليفة ببغداد. وأرسل أيضًا إِلَى الشيخ عَلِي بْن إدريس الزاهد – صاحب الشيخ عَبْد القادر – رسالة طويلة، تتضمن إنكار الرقص والسماع والمبالغة فِي ذَلِكَ.

“I say: He has numerous rasaail which he sent to the nobles as refutations and advice to them. I have seen a book with his writing which he sent to the Khaleefah in Baghdaad, and he also sent to Ash-Shaykh Ali bin Idrees az-Zaahid – Saahib ash-Shaykh Abdul Qaadir – a lengthy risaalah in which he refuted Raqs, Samaa’ and exxagerating in that.”

[Zayl Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah (3/445) & Sharh Ilal al-Kabeer (2/147)]

  • 37- The Hanbali Fuqaha

Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee also said while talking for all the Fuqaha of Hanbali madhab that:

وقال الفقهاء من أصحابنا لا نقبل شهادة المغني والرقاص والله الموفق.

“The fuqahaa’ of our companions said: The testimony of a singer or a person who dances may not be accepted. Allaah is the one who grants success.”

[Talbees Iblees (1/205, 206)]

  • 38- Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (D. 795):

Al-Haafidh said while explaining a hadeeth:

وَالْأَعْمَالُ قِسْمَانِ: عِبَادَاتٌ وَمُعَامَلَاتٌ. فَأَمَّا الْعِبَادَاتُ، فَمَا كَانَ مِنْهَا خَارِجًا عَنْ حُكْمِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ بِالْكُلِّيَّةِ، فَهُوَ مَرْدُودٌ عَلَى عَامِلِهِ، وَعَامِلُهُ يَدْخُلُ تَحْتَ قَوْلِهِ: {أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُوا لَهُمْ مِنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَنْ بِهِ اللَّهُ} [الشورى: 21] فَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ إِلَى اللَّهِ بِعَمَلٍ لَمْ يَجْعَلْهُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ قُرْبَةً إِلَى اللَّهِ، فَعَمَلُهُ بَاطِلٌ مَرْدُودٌ عَلَيْهِ، وَهُوَ شَبِيهٌ بِحَالِ الَّذِينَ كَانَتْ صَلَاتُهُمْ عِنْدَ الْبَيْتِ مُكَاءً وَتَصْدِيَةً، وَهَذَا كَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ إِلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِسَمَاعِ الْمَلَاهِي، أَوْ بِالرَّقْصِ، أَوْ بِكَشْفِ الرَّأْسِ فِي غَيْرِ الْإِحْرَامِ، وَمَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْمُحْدَثَاتِ الَّتِي لَمْ يَشْرَعِ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ التَّقَرُّبَ بِهَا بِالْكُلِّيَّةِ.

“Deeds fall into two categories: acts of worship and transactions. As for the acts of worship, whatever is completely outside of Allaah and His Messenger’s rulings, is rejected, and its doer falls under Allaah’s words,

{أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُوا لَهُمْ مِنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَنْ بِهِ اللَّهُ} [الشورى: 21]

Or have they other deities who have ordained for them a religion to which Allaah has not consented? [Ash-Shura 42:21]

Thus, whoever tried to draw near to Allaah by acts of devotion that Allaah and His Messenger did not order, then his deeds are worthless and thrown back upon him. This is similar to the state of those who were whistling and clapping around the House [of Allaah], as well as those who worshipped Allaah by listening to music, dancing, etc. These are from the innovations which were not ordained in their entirety by Allaah and His Prophet by which to worship Allaah.”

[Jaami al-Uloom wal Hikam by Ibn Rajab (P. 177, 178) English version (P. 90)]

Other Muhadditheen and A’immah:

  • 39- Imaam Yazeed bin Haaroon (D. 206)

He said:

“ما يغبر إلا فاسق، ومتى كان التغبير.”

“No one engages in Taghbeer (singing and dancing) except a Faasiq (a wicked sinner). When was this Taghbeer (done in the past)?”

[Al-Amr bil Ma’roof by al-Khallaal (P. 99) & Dhimm Ash-Shabbaabah by Ibn Qudaamah (P. 22)]

  • 40- Imaam Abdullah bin Dawood ash-Sha’bee (D. 213) – said:

“أرى أن يُضْرب صاحب التغبير”

“I hold that the one who performs Taghbeer should be beaten.”

[Dhimm ash-Shabbaabah by Ibn Qudaamah (P. 22)]

  • 41- Imaam Abu Abdullah Shams ud-Deen al-Qurtubi rahimahullah (D. 671)

He said under the explanation of the verse 35 of Soorah Al-Anfaal that:

ففيه رد على الجهال من الصوفية الذين يرقصون ويصفقون ويصعقون. وذلك كله منكر يتنزه عن مثله العقلاء، ويتشبه فاعله بالمشركين فيما كانوا يفعلونه عند البيت

“In it is the refutation of the ignorant Soofis who dance, clap their hands, and scream and shout. All of that is munkar which every sound minded person remains distant from. These people who perform this act resemble to those mushrik (idolaters) who performed (the same) at the house (of Allaah).”

[Tafseer al-Qurtubi (7/400)]

Imaam Qurtubi also said under the tafseer of the verse:

وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ (١٨) وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ (١٩)

“And do not turn your cheek [in contempt] toward people and do not walk through the earth exultantly. Indeed, Allaah does not like any self-deluded and boastful. And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys.”

[Soorah Luqmaan (31: 18-19)]

He said:

استدل العلماء بهذه الآية على ذم الرقص وتعاطيه

“The Scholars have taken evidence from this verse for the prohibition of raqs (dancing) and being involved in it”

  • 42- Shaykh ul-Islaam Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah (D. 728)

He said:

وَأَمَّا ” الرَّقْصُ ” فَلَمْ يَأْمُرْ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَلَا رَسُولُهُ وَلَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ الْأَئِمَّةِ بَلْ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ : { وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ } وَقَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ : { وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا } أَيْ : بِسَكِينَةِ وَوَقَارٍ . وَإِنَّمَا عِبَادَةُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ الرُّكُوعُ وَالسُّجُودُ ؛ بَلْ الدُّفُّ وَالرَّقْصُ فِي الطَّابَقِ لَمْ يَأْمُرْ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَلَا رَسُولُهُ وَلَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ سَلَفِ الْأُمَّةِ ؛ بَلْ أَمَرُوا بِالْقُرْآنِ فِي الصَّلَاةِ وَالسَّكِينَةِ

“As for Raqs, then it is not commanded by Allaah, neither by the His Messenger, nor by anyone from the A’immah, on the contrary, Allaah has said in His book {Be Moderate in your Pace} [31:19] And He also said in His book {And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily} [25:63] i.e. with tranquility and calmness. And the worship of the Muslims is only Rukoo and Sujood; in fact playing Daff, and Dancing in rooms is not commanded Allaah, His Messenger, or any of the Salaf of the Ummah, rather they have commanded to recite Qur’aan in Salaat and be tranquil.”

[Majmoo al-Fataawa (11/599)]

He also said:

إِنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَمْ يَجْتَمِعْ هُوَ وَأَصْحَابُهُ عَلَى سَمَاعِ كَفٍّ وَلَا سَمَاعِ دُفُوفٍ وَشَبَّابَاتٍ وَلَا رَقْصٍ وَلَا سَقَطَ عَنْهُ ثَوْبٌ مِنْ ثِيَابِهِ فِي ذَلِكَ وَلَا قَسَمَهُ عَلَى أَصْحَابِهِ وَكُلُّ مَا يُرْوَى مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ كَذِبٌ مُخْتَلَقٌ بِاتِّفَاقِ أَهْلِ الْمَعْرِفَةِ بِسُنَّتِهِ

“Indeed the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and his companions never gathered for the purpose of listening to Kaff nor Daffs, not flutes, nor to Dance, nor did he tear his shirt apart in doing that, nor did he distribute it among his companions. Everything that is narrated concerning that is a Lie and fabrication with the agreement of the experts of his Sunnah.”

[Majmoo al-Fataawa (11/88)]

  • 43- Shaykh Abu Haamid al-Ghazzaali ash-Shaafi’ee as-Soofi (D. 505)

Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee said while quoting from Shaykh Abu Haamid al-Ghazzaali (D. 505)

ولقد حدثني بعض المشايخ عن الغزالي أنه قال:» الرقص حماقة بين الكتفين لا تزول إلا بالتعب

“Some Mashaaykh (teachers) reported to me that al-Ghazzaali said: “Dancing is foolishness between the two shoulders and it will not go away except with weariness.””

[Talbees Iblees (1/231), Tafseer Qurtubi (10/263)]

Note: This proves that Al-Ghazzaali recanted from his position. If he did not, then both his sayings will be rejected due to being contradictory.

  • 44- Imaam Muhammad bin Ismaa’eel al-Ameer as-Sana’aani rahimahullah (D. 1182)

He said:

وأما الرقص والتصفيق فشأن أهل الفسق والخلاعة لا شأن من يحب الله ويخشاه

“As for Raqs (dancing) and clapping, then it is only the practice of the people of immorality and corruption, not of those who love Allaah and fear Him”

[Subul as-Salaam (2/192)]

  • 45- Imaam Abu Bakr Muhammad bin al-Husayn al-Ajurri (D. 360)

He said:

فيما ذكرته وبينته مقنع لأهل الحق إشفاقاً عليهم لئلا يداخل قلوبهم من تلبيس أهل الباطل ممن يميل بقبيح مذهبه السوء إلى استماع الغناء من الغلمان المرد: يتلذذ بالنظر إليهم، ولا يحب الاستماع من الرجل الكبير، ويرقص ويزفن، قد ظفر به الشيطان، فهو يلعب به مخالفاً للحق، لا يرجع في فعله الى كتاب ولا إلى سنة ولا إلى قول الصحابة، ولا من تبعهم بإحسان، ولا قول إمام من أئمة المسلمين، وما يخفون من البلاء مما لا يحسن ذكره أقبح ويدعون أن هذا دين يدينون به، نعوذ بالله من قبيح ما هم عليه، ونسأله التوفيق إلى سبيل الرشاد إنه سميع قريب.

[Ash-Sharee’ah by Al-Ajurri (3/1104)]

Madhab of the Soofiyah:

  • 46- Ash-Shihaab as-Suhrwardi as-Soofi

He mentioned some abwaab in “Al-Awaarif” concerning the ruling of Samaa’ and in the 23rd chapter, he refuted the Soofi raqs and Samaa with a detailed fatwa saying:

وحيث كثُرت الفتنة بطريقِه وزالت العصمة فيه وتصدى للحرص عليه أقوامٌ قلَّت أعمالهم وانفسدت أحوالهم وأكثروا الاجتماع للسماع ….. وتكون الرّغبة في الاجتماع طلباً لتناول الشهوة واسترواحاً إلى الطرب واللهو والعشرة ، ولا يخفى أنّ هذا الاجتماع مردودٌ عند أهل الصدق .
…. ويتّفقُ لهم ذلك اتفاقاً في بعض الأحايين لا أن يجعلوه دأباً وديدناً حتى يتركوا لأجله الأوراد، وقد نُقل عن الشافعي رضي الله عنه أنه قال في كتاب آداب القضاء… وضعته الزنادقة ليشغلوا به عن القرآن
ثمّ يتابع السهروردي فيقول : .. وإن أنصف المنصف وتفكّر في اجتماع أهل الزمان وقعود المغنّي بدفّه ، والمشبب بشبّابته وتصوّرَ في نفسه هل وقع مثل هذا الجلوس والهيئة بحضرته صلى الله عليه وسلم؟ وهل استحضروا قوّالاً وقعدوا مجتمعين لاستماعه؟ لا شكَّ بأن يُنكر ذلك من حاله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأصحابه ، ولو كان في ذلك فضيلة تُطلب ما أهملوها.
وكثيراً ما يغلط الناس في هذا كلّما احتُجَّ عليهم بالسلف الماضين ، يحتجُّ بالمتأخّرين ! فكان السلف أقرب عهداً إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهديُهم أشبه بهدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم . ثمّ ذَكَرَ عن عبد الله بن عروة بن الزبير عن جدّته أسماء وعن ابن عمر في الإنكار على من يتساقط عند قراءة القرآن ، وكذا عن ابن سيرين في الإنكار على مثلهم …. فقد تعيّنَ على طائفة الصوفيّة الاجتناب عن مثل هذه الاجتماعات واتقاء مواضع التهم فهذه الآثار دلّت على اجتناب السماع وأخذ الحذر منه.انتهى كلام السهروردي [ملخصاً من كتاب ” إتحاف السادة المتّقين بشرح إحياء علوم الدين ” للزبيدي 6/ 457ـ458]

  • 47- Ash-Shaykh Al-Murtada az-Zubaydee

He is among the Kibaar Soofis of his time. He mentions in his book “Ithaaf as-Saadah al-Muttaqeen BiSharh Ihyaa Uloom ud-Deen” the saying of Allaamah ash-Shaafi’ee al-Faqeeh (Al-Badr Ibn Jamaa’ah) in answer to a query on Samaa saying:

((هذه مسألة خلافيّة …. فلنقتصر على حكاية المذاهب الأربعة : فأمّا أبو حنيفة رحمه الله فمذهبُه فيه أشدُّ المذاهب ، وقوله فيه أغلظُ الأقوال ، وقد صرَّح أصحابُه بأنّ استماعه فسقٌ ، والتلذّذَ به كُفْرٌ ، وليس بعد الكفر غاية . وأمّا مالك رحمه الله فإنه لمّا سُئلَ عنه قال : إنّما يفعله عندنا الفسّاق ، وفي كتُبِ أصحابه إذا اشترى جاريةً فوجدها مغنّية فله أن يردّها بالعيب . وأمّا أحمد بن حنبل رحمه الله فإنّ ابنه عبد الله سأَلَهُ عنه فقال : يا بنيّ الغناءُ يُنبِتُ النفاقَ في القلب، ثم ذكَرَ قولَ مالك إنما يفعله عندنا الفساق . وأمّا الشافعي رحمه الله فقد قال في كتاب القضاء : إن الغناء لهوٌ مكروه يُشبِه الباطل ؛ وقال لأصحابه بمصر :خلَّفتُ ببغداد شيئاً أحدَثَتْهُ الزنادقة يُسمّونه التغبير ، يصدّون به الناس عن القرآن. فإن كان قوله في التّغْبير ـ وهو عبارة عن شعرٍ مُزَهِّدٍ في الدنيا إذا غنّى المغني به ضَرَبَ الحاضرون بقُضُبٍ على نِطع أو مخدّة ضرْباً موافقاً للأوزان الشعريّة ـ فَلَيْتَ شِعْري ماذا يقول في السماع الواقع في زماننا ؟ فمن قال بإباحة هذا النوع فقد أحدَثَ في دين الله ما ليس منه)). انتهى كلام ابن جماعة [باختصار من “إتحاف السادة المتّقين” للزبيدي 6/458]

  • 48- Shaykh al-Junayd rahimahullah

He said:

: “رأيتُ إبليس في النوم فقلتُ له هل تظْفُر منْ أصحابنا بشيء أو تنال منهم نصيباً؟ 
فقال : إنه ليعسر عليَّ شأنهم ويعظم عليَّ أنْ أُصيبَ منهم شيئاً إلا في وقتين ، وقتِ السماع ، و عند النظر، إني أنال منهم فتنة وأدخُلُ عليهم به”

He also said:

إذا رأيتَ المُريد يحبُّ السماع فاعلم أنّ فيه بقيّةً من البطالة

  • 49- Abu al-Haarith al-Awlaasi

He is among the Soofiyah, said:

رأيتُ إبليس في المنام وكان على بعض السطوح في “أولاس” وعن يمينه جماعة وعن يساره جماعة وعليهم ثيابٌ نظيفة فقال لطائفة منهم قوموا وغنّوا فقاموا وغنّوا ، فاستفزعني طيبه حتى هممتُ أن أطرحَ نفسي من السطح ، ثمّ قال ارقصوا فرقصوا بأطيبَ ما يكون ، ثمّ قال : يا أبا الحارث ما أُصيبُ شيئاً أدخلُ به عليكم إلا هذا .

  • 50- Al-Jareeri said:

رأيتُ الجنيد رحمه الله في النوم فقلتُ كيف حالك يا أبا القاسم؟ فقال : طاحت تلك الإشارات ، وبادت تلك العبارات ، وما نفعنا إلا تسبيحات كنّا نقولها بالغدوات.انتهى

[Al-Madkhal li Ibn al-Haaj (3/109)]

Ijmaa on the Prohibition of Raqs:

Allaamah Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Ismaa’eel at-Tahtaawi al-Hanafi (D. 1231) said:

وأما الرقص والتصفيق والصريخ وضرب الأوتار والصنج والبوق الذي يفعله بعض من يدعي التصوف فإنه حرام بالإجماع لأنها زي الكفار

“As for Dancing, Clapping, screaming, beating of stringed instruments and castenets, and blowing trumpets which is done by some of those people who claim Tasawwuf, is indeed Haraam with consensus (Ijmaa) because it is the fashion of Kuffaar.”

[Haashiyah Ala Maraaqi al-Falaah (1/215)]

Imaam Abu al-Faraj Ibn al-Jawzee (D. 597) said:

و قد إنعقد إجتماع العلماء أن من إدعى الرقص قربه إلى الله تعالى كفر

“Indeed there has occurred the Ijtimaa (unanimous consensus) of Ulama upon the fact that whoever claims Raqs (dancing) to be the cause of closeness to Allaah has disbelieved.”

[Seed al-Khaatir (P. 154)]

Imaam Abu al-Abbaas Ahmed bin Umar bin Ibraaheem al-Qurtubi al-Maaliki (D. 656) said:

وَأَمَّا مَا ابْتَدَعَهُ الصُّوفِيَّةُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَمِنْ قَبِيلِ مَا لَا يُخْتَلَفُ فِي تَحْرِيمِهِ

“As for what the Soofis have innovated in this connection (i.e. Al-Ghinaa) is from the types of those concerning which there is no dispute in its unlawfulness.”

[Fath al-Baari (2/442)]

And al-Bazzaazi al-Hanafi (D. 827) has attested and endorsed this Ijmaa

[Al-Fataawa Al-Bazzaaziyah by al-Bazzaazi al-Hanafi (4/349)]

Conclusion:

These were some of the Fatawaa of Kibaar Ulama from the Four Madhaahib along with some opinions of the Kibaar Soofi Scholars, and all of them agree on the prohibition of the gatherings of Samaa’ and Raqs (Al-Hadrah) and these are some of the worst of prohibitions especially in Masaajid. They have described it as being Baatil, Munkar, Misguidance, Playing with Deen, and even Kufr; and they have ruled it to be Haraam. And they have ruled the one who practices it with Fusq, Tabdee’ (declaring him a Mubtadi/innovator), loss of his integrity (Adaalah), rejection of his testimony, and prohibition of paying salaah behind him, in fact they also gave the fatwa of the obligation for the ruler of Muslims to come and prohibit them from attending these gatherings.

We pray that Allaah guides us to the straight path and keep us away from entering any evil into the deen.

3/22/2014

Raza Hassan

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