Reciting Fatiha behind Imam and relevant Quranic Ayah


Al Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abi Bakr As Siddiq one of the Fuqaha of Madina and a Tabae also grandson of Abu Bakr ra was asked about reciting Fatiha Behind the Imam in loud prayers ? He said
«إِنْ قَرَأْتَ فَلَكَ فِي رِجَالٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ، وَإِذَا لَمْ تَقْرَأْ فَلَكَ فِي رِجَالٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ»
If you recite it then there is a example for you amongst the Companions of Prophet SAW, and if you don’t recite it then (still) there is an example for you amongst the Companions of Prophet SAW. [Jame Biyan Al Ilm Wa Fazlhu 1690 with an sound chain of transmission]
 
This is a Fiqhi Issue, following are the evidences of those who consider it obligatory.
 
Quran states: When the Qur’an is being recited then “LISTEN ATTENTIVELY AND REMAIN SILENT” so that mercy will be showered upon you”.(7:204)

This Ayat is against Ahnaf itself because they allow “Subhanaka Allahuma Wabihamdika” when Muqtadi joins the prayer later on ( Fatawa e Alamgiri Vol 1 Page 91 )

This ayat was revealed in Makka because it is the Ayah of Surah Al Araaf which is with consensus Makki, even after this Ayah Companions of the Prophet (s) used to talk during the Salah. Until the Ayah of Surah Baqrah 238 was revealed which was revealed after the Hijrat in Madina.

So the Companions didn’t understand this Ayat as some people claim, neither the Prophet (s) prohibited them in the Makkah. So it is wrong to claim such a baseless thing. When talking is not Prohibited how can one claim to prohibit the Glorious Recitation of Quran.

It is reported in Sahih Al Bukhari :

(1) Narrated Zaid bin Arqam: In the life-time of the Prophet we used to speak while praying, and one of us would tell his needs to his companions, till the verse, ‘Guard Strictly your prayers (2.238) was revealed. After that we were ordered to remain silent while praying. (Book #22, Hadith #292)

(2) Tahawi Hanafi writes about this hadith :
فقد ثبت بحديثه هذا ان نسخ الكالام فى الصلوة كان بالمدينة بعد قدوم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من مكة
From this hadith (of Zain bin Arqam) it is proven that the abrogation of talking during the prayer was revealed in Madina e Tayyaba after the migration of Prophet salalahoalayhiwasalam from Makkah to Madina. ( Sharah Maa’ani Al-Asaar 1/304 )

Same is mentioned by
1 . Allama Aini Hanafi ( Ummdatul Qari 7/269 )
2 . Mulla Ali Qari Hanafi ( Marqat 3/29 )
3 . Ibn e Turkamani Hanafi ( Al Johar Al Naqi 2/361 )

So it is clear from this that when talking was not prohibited after this ayah how can be Umm Ul Qura prohibited ? I will InshAllah will reveal the reality of those weak narrations which are presented about its Shan e Nazul.

Thats why Imam Fakhar Uddin Al – Razi after mentioning 4 quotes in the 5th one he writes in his tafsir :
وفي الآية قول خامس وهو أن قوله تعالى: { وَإِذَا قُرِىء ٱلْقُرْءانُ فَٱسْتَمِعُواْ لَهُ وَأَنصِتُواْ } خطاب مع الكفار في ابتداء التبليغ وليس خطاباً مع المسلمين، وهذا قول حسن مناسب
About this Ayah there is also 5th saying, which is as follows that this Ayah is not addressing Muslims but it addressess the Kuffar in the Starting of Islam, and this saying is more better and suitable.

So the great Muffasir Imam Al-Razi himself selected this Qaul more suitable because the Companions himself didn’t understood this ayah as per some people claim.

So this is proven reading Quran when Quran is recited is not against Quran, this practice is going in the Ummat e Muslima from Tawatur that People read Quran and others also read it, See the Huffaz Classes even the Ahnaf do the same, why don’t they leave this practice, if it is against the Quran.

Furthermore see this Ayah :
وَإِذَا سَمِعُواْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ تَرَىٰٓ أَعۡيُنَهُمۡ تَفِيضُ مِنَ ٱلدَّمۡعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۖ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا فَٱكۡتُبۡنَا مَعَ ٱلشَّـٰهِدِينَ (٨٣)
Surah Al Maidah Chapter 5 Verse 83.

And when they hear that which hath been sent down unto the apostle, then thou beholdest their eyes overflow, with tears because of the truth they have recognised. They say: Our Lord! we believe, so write us down with the witnesses.

So it is proven from this verse, reading Quran silently when Quran is recited is not against the Quran.

 

Some weak narrations regarding it :

1 .
عن بشير بن جابر، قال: صلى ابن مسعود، فسمع ناسا يقرءون مع الإمام، فلـما انصرف، قال: أما آن لكم أن تفقهوا؟ أما آن لكم أن تعقلوا؟ وَإذَا قُرِىءَ القُرآنُ فـاسْتَـمِعُوا لَهُ وأنْصِتُوا كما أمركم الله.

Translation: Hadrat Bashir bin Jabir narrates that Ibn Masud (ra) lead people in prayer and he heard some people reciting along with Imam, when he offered salutations he said: “HASN’T TIME COME YET THAT YOU UNDERSTAND” hasn’t time come yet that you use your senses? Remember when Quran is recited then you should listen to it attentively and “REMAIN SILENT, BECAUSE ALLAH HAS ORDERED IT (IN 7:204)” [Tafsir at-Tabri, (9/110) under 7:204]

First of all the narrator Bashir bin Jabar is Majhool (Unknown), there is no record of him in the books of Rijaal. Some people have tried to deceive the common folks by putting (ra) ahead it, so people shall think that he is a Sahabi. But it is a Majhool narrator which has no record in the Books of Rijaal.

2. The Full Sanad is like this :
حدثنا أبو كريب، قال: ثنا الـمـحاربـي، عن داود بن أبـي هند، عن بشير بن جابر، قال: صلـى ابن مسعود، فسمع ناسا يقرءون مع الإمام، فلـما انصرف، قال: أما آن لكم أن تفقهوا؟ أما آن لكم أن تعقلوا؟ { وَإذَا قُرِىءَ القُرآنُ فـاسْتَـمِعُوا لَهُ وأنْصِتُوا } كما أمركم الله.

The narrator Al Maharbi is Muddalis (Tabaqat Al Mudallisin) and is narrating from UN there it is weak due to one Majhool narrator and second due to Maa’nan of Al Maharbi.

2.
عن سعيد بن جبـير: وَإذَا قُرِىءَ القُرآنُ فـاسْتَـمِعُوا لَهُ وأنْصِتُوا قال: فـي الصلاة الـمكتوبة.

Translation: Hadrat Sa’eed bin Jubair (ra) narrates that {When the Qur’an is being recited then listen attentively and remain silent} is revealed about “OBLIGATORY PRAYERS” [Tafsir Ibn Jarir (9/110) under 7:204]

Here is the full Sanad :
قال: ثنا الـمـحاربـي، عن لـيث، عن مـجاهد، وعن حجاج، عن القاسم بن أبـي بزة، عن مـجاهد، وعن ابن أبـي لـيـلـى، عن الـحكم، عن سعيد بن جبـير: { وَإذَا قُرِىءَ القُرآنُ فـاسْتَـمِعُوا لَهُ وأنْصِتُوا } قال: فـي الصلاة الـمكتوبة.

Al Maharbi is Muddalis (Tabqat Al Mudallisin) and narrating from Un, therefore it is weak.

 
Secondly the narrator Lais bin Abi Salim is also weak according to Jamhur Muhadissin. ( See Books of Asma o Rijaal )
 
it contains the narrator Abdur Rehman bin Abi Laila who is weak according to Jamhur Muhadissin ( Al Jarrha Wa Tadeel 7/322, Al Zaufa Wa Al Nasai 525, )

Zaili Hanafi says about him : “Weak” (Nasb Ar Raya 1/318)

The Third illat is that a Narrator Hajjaj about which we will mentioned from the Hanafi House, as they have done Jarrha on the narration of Nikah bi Wali however this narration is proven from another route Wallhamdulilah.
Amer Pt Hanafi Quoted :

Abul Hasan Muhammad bin Abdul Hadi as-Sanadee, in Sunan Ibn Majah bi Sharh as-Sanadee wa Misbah az-Zujajah fi Zawa’id Ibn Majah vol.2 pg 428 [Publication: Darul Ma’rifah, Beirut; 1996], comments on this hadith:

“According to al-Zawa’id, its isnad contains in it al-Hajjaj who is Ibn Artaah. He is mudallis. He has transmitted it through ‘an‘ana and he has not heard from ‘Ikrama.

So therefore it is weak also due to Tadlis of Hajjaj.
3.
وقال علي بن أبي طلحة عن ابن عباس في الآية قوله {وَإِذَا قُرِىءَ ٱلْقُرْءَانُ فَٱسْتَمِعُوا۴} يعني في الصلاة المفروضة،

Translation: Ibn Abbas (ra) said that {When the Qur’an is being recited then listen attentively and remain silent} refers to ruling regarding “OBLIGATORY PRAYERS” [Tafsir Ibn Kathir under 7:204]

This sanad is weak as well because Ali bin Abi Talha didn’t get the era of Ibn e Abbas.

A Hanafi Alim Muhammad Zahid Al Kausiri writes about a hadith that “ It is weak due to Inqita because Ali bin Abi Talha didn’t get the era of Ibn e Abbas” ( Maqamat Al Kausiri 355 )

 

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