Combining Salah ( Namaz ) in any Hardship or Travelling


salah

 

Masla : Combining Salah ( Namaz ) in any Hardship or Travelling

Daleel : It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed Zuhr and ‘Asr together in Madeenah, at a time when there was no fear and he was not travelling. Abu’l-Zubayr said: I asked Sa’eed [i.e., ibn Jubayr], Why did he do that? He said, I asked Ibn ‘Abbaas the same question, and he said, He did not want anyone among his ummah to suffer hardship.

Source : { Narrated by Muslim, 705. }

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According to Scholars it is permissible to combine prayers if there is Any hardship, But one does not do so habitually or with out any reason.

Scholars who agreed with this position include Ibn Sirin, the Maliki jurist Asshab, the Shafii jurist Ibn al-Mundhir, and Also This Is the view of Our Scholars

Shaykul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [ra]

Shaykh. Bin Baaz r.a

Shaykh. Al Albany r.a

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen

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1. Shaykh Ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:

With regard to joining prayers, the reason for it is if there is a need or an excuse. So if a person needs to do so, he may join prayers whilst travelling, whether he is travelling a long distance or a short one, and he may join prayers because of rain etc., or because of sickness etc., or for any other reason, because the point is to spare the Muslims any difficulty or hardship.

{ Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 22/293 }

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2. Sheikh Ibn Bāz, said  in his marginal notes on Fath al-Bārī, writes: “The best way to view the hadīth is to understand that the Prophet (peace be upon him) combined between the said prayers particularly that day for some hardship, whether it was sickness, extreme cold, mud or something else. Ibn `Abbas, when he was asked about the reason for combining prayers, said it was to remove hardship from the people, which is a proper and correct answer.”

[Fath al-Barī, (2/24)]

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3. Muhaddis Shaikh al-Albaani r.a said :

“Imaam Muslim reported in his Saheeh the hadeeth from Ibn `Abbaas who said: ‘The Messenger of Allaah ﷺ combined Dhuhr with `Asr and Maghrib with`Ishaa in Madeenah without being in a state of traveling or the presence of rain.’ They said: ‘Why did he do that O Abu l-`Abbaas?’[1] This was `Abdullaah bin `Abbaas’s kunyah. He replied: ‘So he would not put his ummah to difficulty.’’[2]

So what is apparent from the hadeeth is that it is permissible to combine two prayers while being a resident and without the excuse of rain, as rain is a Legislated excuse that allows the combining of two prayers. And here Ibn `Abbaas says that the Prophet ﷺ combined while he was a resident and combined without the excuse of rain, and he confirmed that when he was asked the previous question ‘Why did he do that?’ by saying: ‘So he would not put hisummah to difficulty.’ This is the hadeeth and it is in Saheeh Muslim, not al-Bukhaari. The same meaning is found in al-Bukhaari: that he combined prayers in Madeenah as eight rak`ahs,[3] but it does not have this detail that Imaam Muslim reported from Ibn `Abbaas which contains this important subtlety – i.e. his رضي الله عنه statement ‘So he would not put his ummah to difficulty’ in answer to that question.

So some scholars of both old and recent times hold that this combining is permissible for a resident without any excuse, and I don’t consider this correct because the narrator of the hadeeth justifies the Messenger’s ﷺ combining without an excuse with another excuse: which is to legislate and explain to the people, as Ibn `Abbaas said, ‘So he ﷺ would not put his ummah to difficulty.’This means that the ruling of combining as a resident is restricted to the presence of difficulty if one were to not combine. So when there is difficulty in performing the prayers in their known appointed times, it is permissible to combine to avoid the difficulty, which Allaah عز وجل negated in the likes of His Statement: {He has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty}.[4] But if there is no difficulty, it is obligatory to maintain performing the five prayers, each prayer in its time, because there is no difficulty.

For example, I am sitting here and I hear the adhaan there in the nearby mosque and I am able to go out without any difficulty, then it is not permissible for me to combine. And vice versa: when I came on this trip I found that this electric elevator wasn’t working, and it is very difficult for me as you see because of a pain in my knees to go down or up by way of stairs. So some prayers went by and I didn’t go out to the mosque. But when the electric elevator was fixed and saved me the difficulty of going up and down, it became obligatory upon me to pray every prayer in the mosque because I did not find this difficulty that I had found when I just settled here. Therefore combining is only allowed to avoid difficulty; and when there is no difficulty, there is no combining. They are two inseparable matters: when there is no difficulty, there is no combining; when there isdifficulty, there is combining. And this is the best that can be said to reconcile between this authentic hadeeth and the hadeeths clearly stating that every prayer is to be prayed in its appointed time and that it is not allowed to distract oneself from it – especially since in most circumstances, combining necessitates leaving prayer with the congregation, as I described to you my previous situation.”

[1] the addition of “O Abu l-`Abbaas” is found in Musnad Ahmad 4/192
[2] Saheeh Muslim 705
[3] Saheeh al-Bukhaari 543
[4] Surat ul-Hajj 22:78

[fataawaa jeddah 13/5 / asaheeha translations]

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4. Shaykh. Ibn ‘Uthaymeen Said : As for (the question), ?Is combining (the prayers) permissible when shortening is allowed?? Then we say, ?Combining (the prayers) is not associated with shortening. Rather, combining is associated with a need.? So whenever the person needs to combine whether he is traveling or not, then let him combine. For this, the people combine because of rain, which due to it; it would be a hardship to return to the masaajid. Also, the people combine if there is harsh, cold wind during the days of winter, which due to it, it would be a hardship to go out to the masaajid. He combines if he fears losing his wealth or any harm in it, or whatever is similar to that – the person combines (his prayers). It is reported in Saheeh Muslim from ?Abdullaah ibn ?Abbaas (Radhiallaahu ?Anhum) that he said:

?The Prophet (Sallallaahu ?Alayhi Wa Sallam) combined between Dhuhr and ?Asr, and between Maghrib and Ishaa not due to any fear nor rain.? [2]

They asked, ?Why did he do this?? He said that he did so in order not to cause any hardship upon his Ummah. Meaning, he did not want to place any hardship that would make one leave the congregation.

This is the condition – whenever the person finds a hardship which would lead him to leave off the congregation, then it is permissible for him to combine. If there is no hardship upon him, then he doesn?t combine.

However, traveling is most likely to place a hardship which would lead to leaving the congregation. If this is so, then it is permissible for the traveler to combine whether he was in the middle of his journey or has stopped to reside (at his destination). If he is in the middle of his journey, then combining is preferable and if he has stopped traveling (reached his destination) then not combining is preferable.

The exception to this is when a person is residing (reached a destination) in a land where the congregation is established, then it is obligatory to attend the congregation. In that case, he would not combine nor shorten (his prayers). However, if he missed the congregation, then he shortens and does not combine, unless he needs to combine (for some reason).

footnote:
[2] Reported by Muslim, The Book of The Traveler?s Prayer, Chapter: Combining Between Two Prayers While Residing, no. 705.

Fatawaa regarding travel and praying while traveling
Written by/Said by: Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Rahimahullaah)

Taken from: Fataawaa Arkaan al-Islaam, Number 312 and 315, Pages 381 and 387

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